Nurses will assist doctors in the emergency room or in trauma care when help is needed. 39 Gender issues edit main article: Men in nursing A nurse at Runwell Hospital, wickford, Essex, in 1943 Despite equal opportunity legislation, nursing has continued to be a female-dominated profession. 40 For instance, the male-to-female ratio of nurses is approximately 1:19 in Canada and the United States. 41 42 This ratio is represented around the world. Notable exceptions include Francophone Africa, which includes the countries of Benin, burkina faso, cameroon, Chad, congo, côte d'ivoire, the democratic Republic of Congo, djibouti, guinea, gabon, mali, mauritania, niger, Rwanda, senegal, and Togo, which all have more male than female nurses. 43 In Europe, in countries such as Spain, portugal, czech Republic and Italy, over 20 of nurses are male. 43 In the United Kingdom, 11 of nurses and midwives registered with the nmc are male.
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37 Nurses may follow their personal and professional interests by working with any group of people, in any setting, at any time. Some nurses follow the traditional role of working in a hospital setting. Other options include: pediatrics, neonatal, maternity, obgyn, geriatrics, ambulatory, and nurse anesthetists. There are many other pollutants options nurses can explore depending on the type of degree and education acquired. RNs may also pursue different roles as advanced practice registered nurses. Nurses are not truly doctor's assistants. This is possible in certain situations, but nurses more often are independently caring for their patients or assisting other nurses. 38 Registered Nurses treat patients, record their medical history, provide emotional support, and provide follow-up care. Nurses also help doctors perform diagnostic tests. Nurses are almost always working on their own or with other nurses.
The Associate degree in Nursing (ADN) is awarded to the nurse who has completed a two-year undergraduate academic degree awarded by community colleges, junior colleges, technical colleges, and bachelor's degree-granting colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study usually lasting two years. It is also referred to as Associate in Nursing (an associate of Applied Science in Nursing (aas or Associate of Science in Nursing (ASN). 36 The bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) is awarded to the nurse who has earned an American four-year academic degree in the science and principles of nursing, granted by a tertiary education donation university or similarly accredited school. After completing either the lpn or either rn education programs in the United States, graduates are eligible to sit for a licensing examination to become a nurse, the passing of which is required for the nursing license. The national Licensure Examination (nclex) test is a multiple choice exam nurses take to become licensed. It costs two-hundred dollars to take the nclex. It examines a nurses ability to properly care for a client. Study books and practice tests are available for purchase.
The profession combines physical science, social science, nursing theory, and technology in caring for those individuals. To work in the buy nursing profession, all nurses hold one or more credentials depending on their scope of practice and education. In the business United States, a licensed practical nurse (LPN) (also referred to as a licensed vocational nurse, registered practical nurse) works independently or with a registered nurse (RN). The most significant differentiation between an lpn and rn is found in the requirements for entry to practice, which determines entitlement for their scope of practice. For example, canada requires a bachelor's degree for the rn and a two-year diploma for the lpn. A registered nurse provides scientific, psychological, and technological knowledge in the care of patients and families in many health care settings. Registered nurses may earn additional credentials or degrees. In the United States, multiple educational paths will qualify a candidate to sit for the licensure examination as a registered nurse.
— royal College of Nursing (2003) 33 Nursing is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities; prevention of illness and injury; alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human responses; and advocacy in health care for individuals, families, communities, and populations. — american Nurses Association 34 The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary. — virginia avenel Henderson 35 As a profession edit a nurse in Indonesia examining a patient A nurse treating a patient with burns, ziguinchor paigc hospital, 1973 The authority for the practice of nursing is based upon a social contract that delineates professional rights and. In almost all countries, nursing practice is defined and governed by law, and entrance to the profession is regulated at the national or state level. The aim of the nursing community worldwide is for its professionals to ensure quality care for all, while maintaining their credentials, code of ethics, standards, and competencies, and continuing their education. 32 There are a number of educational paths to becoming a professional nurse, which vary greatly worldwide; all involve extensive study of nursing theory and practice as well as training in clinical skills. Nurses care for individuals of all ages and cultural backgrounds who are healthy and ill in a holistic manner based on the individual's physical, emotional, psychological, intellectual, social, and spiritual needs.
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24 More nurses volunteered for service in the us army and navy than any other occupation. 25 26 The nazis had their own Brown Nurses, plan 40,000 strong. 27 Two dozen German Red Cross nurses were awarded the Iron Cross for heroism under fire. 28 The modern era saw the development of undergraduate and post-graduate nursing degrees. Advancement of nursing research and a desire for association and organization led to the formation of a wide variety of professional organizations and academic journals. Growing recognition of nursing as a distinct academic discipline was accompanied by an awareness of the need to define the theoretical basis for practice. 29 In the 19th and early 20th century, nursing was considered a women's profession, just as doctoring was a men's profession.
With increasing expectations of workplace equality during the late 20th century, nursing became an officially gender-neutral profession, though in practice the percentage of male nurses remains well below that of female physicians in the early 21st century. 30 31 Definition edit Although nursing practice varies both through its various specialties and countries, these nursing organizations offer the following definitions: Nursing encompasses biography autonomous and collaborative care of individuals of all ages, families, groups and communities, sick or well and in all settings. Nursing includes the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and the care of ill, disabled and dying people. Advocacy, promotion of a safe environment, research, participation in shaping health policy and in patient and health systems management, and education are also key nursing roles. — international council of Nurses 32 The use of clinical judgment in the provision of care to enable people to improve, maintain, or recover health, to cope with health problems, and to achieve the best possible quality of life, whatever their disease or disability, until.
18 Catholic orders such as Little sisters of the poor, sisters of Mercy, sisters. Francis health Services, Inc. And Sisters of Charity built hospitals and provided nursing services during this period. Citation needed In turn, the modern deaconess movement began in Germany in 1836. 19 Within a half century, there were over 5,000 deaconesses in Europe.
20 Formal use of nurses in the modern military began in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Nurses saw active duty in the first boer War, the Egyptian Campaign (1882) 21 and the sudan Campaign (1883). 22 20th century edit further information: Women in nursing A recruiting poster for Australian nurses from World War i hospital-based training came to the fore in the early 1900s, with an emphasis on practical experience. The nightingale-style school began to disappear. Hospitals and physicians saw women in nursing as a source of free or inexpensive labor. Exploitation of nurses was not uncommon by employers, physicians and educational providers. 23 Many nurses saw active duty in World War i, but the profession was transformed during the second World War. British nurses of the Army nursing Service were part of every overseas campaign.
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14 Both the red role of nursing and education were first defined by nightingale. Florence nightingale laid the foundations of professional nursing after the Crimean War. 15 Her Notes on Nursing (1859) became popular. The nightingale model of professional education, having set up the first school of nursing that is connected to a continuously operating hospital and medical school, spread widely in Europe and North America after 1870. 16 Nightingale was also a pioneer of the graphical presentation of statistical data. 17 Other important nurses in the development of the profession include: Agnes Hunt from Shropshire was the first orthopedic nurse and was pivotal in the emergence of the orthopedic hospital The robert Jones agnes Hunt Hospital in Oswestry, shropshire. Agnes Jones, who established a nurse training regime at the Brownlow Hill infirmary, liverpool, in 1865. Linda richards, who established quality nursing schools in the United States and Japan, and was officially the first professionally trained nurse in the us, graduating in 1873 from the new England Hospital for Women and Children in Boston Clarissa harlowe "Clara" Barton, a pioneer American. Saint Marianne cope, a sister of St Francis nurse who opened and operated some of the first general hospitals in the United States, instituting cleanliness standards which influenced the development of America's modern hospital system.
Those nuns who had been serving as nurses were given pensions or told to get married and stay home. 12 Nursing care went to the inexperienced as traditional caretakers, rooted in the roman Catholic Church, were removed from their positions. The nursing profession suffered a major setback for approximately 200 years. 13 19th century edit one Florence nightingale was an influential figure in the development of modern nursing. No uniform had been created when Nightingale was employed during the Crimean War. Often considered the first nurse theorist, nightingale linked health with five environmental factors 1) pure or fresh air, (2) pure water, (3) efficient drainage, (4) cleanliness, and (5) light, especially direct sun light. Deficiencies in these five factors resulted in lack of health or illness.
as "the different parts or members of the body as mentioned before including the skin, cannot be correctly described by one who is not well. Hence, any one desirous of acquiring a thorough knowledge of anatomy should prepare a dead body and carefully, observe, by dissecting it, and examine its different parts." Before the foundation of modern nursing, members of religious orders such as nuns and monks often provided nursing-like. 5 Examples exist in Christian, 6 Islamic 7 and Buddhist 8 traditions amongst others. Phoebe, mentioned in Romans 16 has been described in many sources as "the first visiting nurse". 9 10 These traditions were influential in the development of the ethos of modern nursing. The religious roots of modern nursing remain in evidence today in many countries. One example in the United Kingdom is the use of the historical title "sister" to refer to a senior nurse in the past. 11 During the reformation of the 16th century, protestant reformers shut down the monasteries and convents, allowing a few hundred municipal hospices to remain in operation in northern Europe.
In the postwar period, nurse education has undergone a process of diversification towards advanced and specialized credentials, and many of the traditional regulations and provider roles are changing. 1 2, nurses develop a plan of care, working collaboratively with physicians, therapists, the patient, the patient's family and other team members, that focuses on treating illness to improve quality of life. In the United States and the United Kingdom, advanced practice nurses, such as clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners, diagnose health problems and prescribe medications and other therapies, depending on individual state regulations. Nurses may help coordinate the patient care performed by writing other members of a multidisciplinary health care team such as therapists, medical practitioners and dietitians. Nurses provide care both interdependently, for example, with physicians, and independently as nursing professionals. Contents, history edit, main articles: History of nursing and, timeline of nursing history, traditional edit. Nursing historians face the challenge of determining whether care provided to the sick or injured in antiquity was nursing care. 3, in the fifth century bc, for example, the.
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For other uses, see, nursing (disambiguation). "Nurse" and "Nurses" redirect here. For other uses, see, nurse (disambiguation). Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of resume individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care, training, and scope of practice. Nurses practice in many specialties with differing levels of prescription authority. Many nurses provide care within the ordering scope of physicians, and this traditional role has shaped the public image of nurses as care providers. However, nurse practitioners are permitted by most jurisdictions to practice independently in a variety of settings.